Egypt Uprising of 2011

In 2011, an unprecedented popular uprising erupted in Egypt, shaking the administration of one of the longest-serving and most influential Middle Eastern and North African leaders, Pres. Hosni Mubarak. Demonstrations took hold in the capital and in cities around the country, with protesters calling for Mubarak to step down immediately, clearing the way for free elections and democracy. Mubarak's attempts to placate the protesters with concessions did little to quell the unrest. After almost three weeks of mass protests, Mubarak stepped down as president, leaving the Egyptian military in control of the country. Go inside Britannica to learn more about the uprising, its background, and its effects on the broader region.


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The 2011 Uprising



 

Egypt Uprising of 2011

Unprecedented popular uprising in Egypt that began in January 2011 and resulted in the country's long-serving president, Hosni Mubarak, stepping down and handing control of the country over to the military.


 
Hosni Mubarak
Egyptian president who served for nearly 30 years until forced to step down after weeks of unprecedented mass protests in 2011.

 
Omar Suleiman
One of the most powerful figures in Egypt under Mubarak. He served as director of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service before being appointed as vice president in January 2011 in an effort to quell unrest.

 
Mohamed ElBaradei
Egyptian lawyer, government official, and Nobel laureate who advocated for political reform and was critical of Mubarak's policies.

Muslim Brotherhood

Religio-political organization founded in Egypt in 1928. Previously banned from political participation in Egypt, after Mubarak's ouster they announced their intent to form a political party.

 
Cairo
City that served as the epicentre of the protests.




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Background: Egypt's History and Modern Figures

 
Explore the rich history of this fascinating country.

 
Egyptian army officer and politician who was president of Egypt from 1970 until his assassination in 1981.

 
Egyptian army officer who led the coup that abolished the monarchy in Egypt in 1952, established a republic, and became a longtime leader of Egypt (1954-70) and influential Arab statesman.

 
Egyptian army officer and statesman who played a prominent role in the revolutionary overthrow of King Farouk I in 1952 and the creation of the modern republic. Sidelined by Nasser two years later.

 
King of Egypt from 1936 to 1952; forced by Nasser to abdicate in 1952.

 
Egyptian political and religious leader who established the Muslim Brotherhood and played a central role in Egyptian political and social affairs.

Context: Wider Regional Unrest



Tunisia's president for more than 20 years before unexpected popular unrest forced him to step down in January 2011. His ouster set the precedent for the events in Egypt and other Middle East and North African countries.
 

Chronicles the protests and ouster of Ben Ali.
 


In late January 2011? - after the popular uprising in Tunisia that inspired similar protests in Egypt? - thousands of protesters gathered in Sanaa and several other Yemeni cities to call on the president to step down and condemned poverty and official corruption.
 
 

In January 2011, following massive antigovernment demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt, thousands of Jordanians attended rallies in Amman to protest high prices, unemployment, and a lack of democracy in Jordan.
 


In February 2001, protesters - ?ostensibly gathering to show solidarity with Egypt and Tunisia - ?began chanting slogans critical of Iranian leaders.
 


In February 2011, in the wake of the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings that saw the presidents from those countries step down, thousands of Bahraini protesters gathered in Manama to call for political and economic reforms, including a new constitution, the creation of a more representative parliament, and the release of political prisoners.
 


In the wake of the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings, antigovernment rallies were held in Libya in February 2011. The ensuing crisis proved to be the most serious challenge ever faced by Muammar al-Qaddafi in his 40+ years as leader of the country.
 


Amid similar protests in Tunisia and Egypt, in January 2011 protests broke out in Algeria as young people took to the streets to demonstrate against rising food prices, unemployment, and political repression.
 

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